Beloved Prophet Muhammad, may God send His praises upon
him, was born in Mecca, Saudi Arabia circa 570 C.E. He is an example for all
of humanity. He was a remarkable man at all times. He excelled in all walks
of life by being a prophet, ruler, orator, soldier, husband,
friend, father, uncle, nephew, and a grandfather. He was a man of love,
patience, courage, wisdom, generosity, intelligence and magnitude who inspired
millions of lives throughout the world.
God says in the Quran that he was sent as a mercy for
the people of the world.
“We sent thee not save as a mercy for the peoples.” (Quran 21:107)
His Prophetic Mission began at the age of forty, circa 610
C.E., and continued until 632 C.E. From the path of ignorance, mankind was
lead to the straight path and was blessed with the guidance of God.
Shortly before his death, Prophet Muhammad delivered a sermon
during the Hajj, which came to be known as his “Final Sermon”. This
final sermon was not only a reminder to his followers, but also an important
admonition. The final sermon confirms the end of his Prophetic Mission.
Year 10 A.H. of the Islamic Calendar is considered to
be one of the most significant years for three reasons. Firstly, this was the
year when the Prophet delivered his Last Sermon during his farewell pilgrimage
to Mecca. Secondly, this was the year where number of deputations came to the
Prophet to announce their Islam as well as their tribes. Thirdly, it was the
golden period of Islam when multitudes of people embraced the faith by
accepting the message of the Prophet.
Prophet Muhammad undertook his farewell pilgrimage in the
year 10 A.H. His farewell pilgrimage to Mecca is one of the most significant
historical events in the minds of Muslims, for it was the first and last
pilgrimage made by Prophet Muhammad, as well as being the model for performing
the fifth pillar of Islam, the Hajj.
Prophet Muhammad’s final sermon was delivered during the
Hajj of the year 632 C.E., the ninth day of Dhul Hijjah, the 12th month
of the lunar year, at Arafat, the most blessed day of the year. There were
countless Muslims present with the Prophet during his last pilgrimage when he
delivered his last Sermon.
The Final Sermon:
After praising, and thanking God, the Prophet, may God
send His praises upon him said:
lend me an attentive ear, for I know not whether after this year, I shall ever
be amongst you again. Therefore, listen to what I am saying to you very
carefully and take these words to those who could not be present here today.
just as you regard this month, this day, this city as Sacred, so regard the
life and property of every Muslim as a sacred trust. Return the goods
entrusted to you to their rightful owners. Hurt no one so that no one may hurt
you. Remember that you will indeed meet your Lord, and that He will indeed
reckon your deeds. God has forbidden you to take usury (interest), therefore
all interest obligation shall henceforth be waived. Your capital, however, is
yours to keep. You will neither inflict nor suffer any inequity. God has
Judged that there shall be no interest, and that all the interest due to Abbas
ibn Abd’al Muttalib shall henceforth be waived...
Satan, for the safety of your religion. He has lost all hope that he will ever
be able to lead you astray in big things, so beware of following him in small
it is true that you have certain rights with regard to your women, but they
also have rights over you. Remember that you have taken them as your wives
only under a trust from God and with His permission. If they abide by your
right then to them belongs the right to be fed and clothed in kindness. Do
treat your women well and be kind to them for they are your partners and
committed helpers. And it is your right that they do not make friends with any
one of whom you do not approve, as well as never to be unchaste.
listen to me in earnest, worship God, perform your five daily prayers, fast
during the month of Ramadan, and offer Zakat. Perform Hajj if you have the
mankind is from Adam and Eve. An Arab has no superiority over a non-Arab, nor does
a non-Arab have any superiority over an Arab; white has no superiority over
black, nor does a black have any superiority over white; [none have superiority
over another] except by piety and good action. Learn that every Muslim is a
brother to every Muslim and that the Muslims constitute one brotherhood. Nothing
shall be legitimate to a Muslim which belongs to a fellow Muslim unless it was
given freely and willingly. Do not, therefore, do injustice to yourselves.
one day you will appear before God and answer for your deeds. So beware, do
not stray from the path of righteousness after I am gone.
O People, no
prophet or apostle will come after me, and no new faith will be born. Reason
well, therefore, O people, and understand words which I convey to you. I leave
behind me two things, the Quran and my example, the Sunnah, and if you follow
these you will never go astray.
who listen to me shall pass on my words to others and those to others again;
and it may be that the last ones understand my words better than those who
listen to me directly. Be my witness, O God, that I have conveyed your message
to your people.”
Thus the beloved Prophet completed his Final Sermon, and
upon it, near the summit of Arafat, the revelation came down:
“…This day have I perfected your religion for you, completed
My Grace upon you, and have chosen Islam for you as your religion…” (Quran 5:3)
Even today the Last Sermon of Prophet Muhammad is passed
to every Muslim in every corner of the word through all possible means of
communication. Muslims are reminded about it in mosques and in lectures. Indeed
the meanings found in this sermon are indeed astounding, touching upon some of
the most important rights God has over humanity, and humanity has over each
other. Though the Prophet’s soul has left this world, his words are still
living in our hearts.